Combat Logistics Battalion 31 was activated in June 1979 at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, as Logistic Support Unit 31, 31st Marine Amphibious Unit, Fleet Marine Forces Pacific. The unit was re-designated October 1979 as Marine Amphibious Unit Service Support Group 31 (MSSG-31), 31st Marine Amphibious Unit (31st MAU). The unit was deactivated in April 1985. In September 1992, the unit was reactivated as Marine Expeditionary Unit Service Support Group 31 (MSSG-31) operationally controlled by the reactivated 31st MEU.
From its time of activation to 1998, MSSG-31 supported the 31st MEU in various theater exercises in the Pacific region such as VALIANT USHER, COBRA GOLD, and FOAL EAGLE. In December 1998, 31st MEU was the theater reserve for OPERATION DESERT FOX where it conducted a non-combatant evacuation of 90 American citizens from Kuwait. In January 2000, MSSG-31 was part of the Special-Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force East Timor supporting the Australian-led International Forces in East Timor to the new United Nations Transitional Administration East Timor. From September 2004 to March 2005, MSSG-31 supported Battalion Landing Team 1st Battalion 3rd Marines during combat operation in support of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM participating in Operation PHANTHOM FURY. In January 2006, MSSG-31 supported humanitarian relief efforts in Leyte, Philippines.
In October 2006, MSSG-31 was re-designated to its current moniker CLB-31. From May to June of 2008, CLB-31 responded to the post-cyclone relief efforts in Myanmar in Operation CARING RESPONSE. In October of 2009 and 2010, CLB-31 responded to two typhoons that destroyed the Filipino province Luzon. Then in 2011, while conducting an exercise in Malaysia, CLB-31 participated in Operation TOMODACHI in the relief efforts after the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Oshima Island, Japan.